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In the loading port the tanker was the passive receiver of the cargo. At the discharge port the tanker becomes the active mover of the cargo. The pumping operation increases the work load of the crew, with added monitoring and control activities. While the chances of a tank overflow are reduced somewhat during discharging, the opportunities for cargo leakage are increased because of the higher pipeline pressures on the ship and the involvement of the pumproom in the transfer. Extra vigilance is required. The chief officer must carefully schedule the work of the crew to avoid excessive fatigue.

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