5.18 SETTING THE DECK WATCH
Before the cargo pumps are started, the chief officer will assign
the deck watch to designated tasks to begin the discharge. One crew
member will stand by the manifold valve ready to open it. The pumpman
will be standing by his pump controls. The cargo watch officer may be
in the CCR or on deck if assigned to check the ullages of all tanks
when the discharge begins. If the cargo is viscous or high-pour oil,
the pumproom bulkhead valve must remain closed until just before the
pumps are started, so one man will be assigned to open it when told
to do so. The objective of carefully assigning the deck watch personnel
is to maintain as complete control as possible over the start of the
Watch duties and routines to be followed after cargo transfer is started
must be clearly defined and the periods and times of breaks understood
and adhered to. Two men should be on deck at all times. One person is
assigned cargo duties, the other attends the mooring lines, fire wires
and other matters as directed. All personnel involved in cargo operations
must know the location of the cargo pump stop switches and that whenever
they see cargo escaping from the ship discharge piping or from piping
ashore, it is their duty (after passing the alarm by radio), to activate
the nearest pump stop.
If the cargo officer stands his watch on deck, he should not leave the
deck unless some other duty requires him to. During the cargo watch,
the watch officer should make frequent rounds of the vessel, checking
and rechecking the progress of the discharge and inspecting areas and
spaces where problems can occur. It is an amazing fact that problems
most often occur when no one is present. When the deck watch sits around
waiting for something to happen, it usually does ... somewhere else!
The best way of preventing problems then, is to be everywhere on the
ship frequently! Forward and aft store rooms, cofferdams, pumprooms,
deck machinery spaces, the surrounding water surface, ballast tanks
and empty cargo tanks all deserve frequent attention.
A regular check should be make of each active cargo tank and the observed
ullages used to calculate the time when each tank will be ready for
stripping. The cargo discharge rate should be calculated and compared
with the hourly figure received by the shore. Any significant discrepancy
is cause for concern. If a significant difference is noted, then ullages
should be checked and recalculated. If the discrepancy still exists
then stop the discharge until the cause of the difference is determined.
Cargo discharge pressures and temperatures should be checked hourly
and logged. Fire fighting equipment should be checked once each watch.
The deck watch should be instructed in the use of any equipment with
which they are not perfectly familiar. Verify that the cargo status
board is up to date and double check the cargo orders once during the
watch to ensure that they have been properly understood.
If the cargo watch officer stands his watch in a cargo control room
(CCR), his watch subordinates must be his eyes and ears on deck. Any
unusual sight, sound or incident should be reported immediately to him.
The rounds they make and the points to be checked should be set out
by the watch officer. The watch officer should know what each of his
personnel are doing at all times.
The watch member assigned to moorings and inspections should report
hourly to the cargo watch officer in the CCR, indicating the conditions
observed during his rounds and the mooring adjustments he has made.
In severe weather, watch rotation and break frequency should be increased
without reducing the deck manning. Personnel who turn-to on deck insufficiently
dressed for the weather should be sent back for additional clothing.
If hearing protection is required in certain areas of the ship, such
as the pumproom, it must be either available at the entrance to the
space or carried by watch personnel and used as appropriate.
All cargo watch personnel must carry a portable radio , through which
the watch officer can make inquiries and indicate needed checks/inspections.
Crew members making pumproom inspections should report when entering
the pumproom, when safely at the bottom and when leaving the space.
If high vapour-pressure cargo is being discharged, the pumps must be
carefully watched for signs of cavitation due to vapour formation. As
the tanks are drawn down to a low innage level, it may be necessary
to operate the vapour extraction system (if fitted), or to partially
open a full tank of cargo to supply sufficient flow to the pump to prevent
vapour from forming.
The watch officer must lead by example in setting the tone of his cargo
watch. If he takes an active, vigorous and professional attitude toward
his duties and clearly instructs his watch personnel, they will respond
in kind and the cargo watch will remain fully under control.
5.18.1 Duties of the pumpman
The pumpman is charged with operating and maintaining the cargo and
ballast pumps. It is his responsibility to see that they are ready in
all respects to discharge cargo at the time the shore is ready to receive
cargo. During the discharge, he should make regular checks of the pumproom
to verify that everything is in order and to make minor adjustments
if necessary. He should undertake no repairs while discharging, unless
he first consults with the chief officer and chief engineer and the
appropriate work permit is prepared.
The pumpman operates the stripping pumps and crude oil washing equipment
to maximize the recovery and outturn of cargo.
Despite his obvious qualifications, the pumpman remains a subordinate
assistant to the cargo watch officer. If the pumpman should initiate
an action which is illegal (likely to cause pollution), or unwise, the
cargo watch officer should stop him and suggest an alternative. If the
pumpman persists, he must be ordered to stop and the matter referred
immediately to the chief officer.
Fatigue is a significant problem for the pumpman (if only one is carried)
and the cargo watch officers should give him an opportunity to rest
whenever the discharge is expected to continue routinely for several