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4.14 TRAINING AND DRILLS

During the loaded passage, the master should ensure that the crew's training program is reviewed with the senior officers and that appropriate training and drills are scheduled and conducted to maintain the capabilities and readiness of the crew. The training records, or a similar system as recommended in section 1.5.1, should be maintained for each crew member. When the records are reviewed as a group, (by preparing a 'training completed' matrix), areas where training is generally deficient can be seen and added to the training calendar.
On-board training should seek to reinforce and sharpen the particular skill areas of STCW mandated training for masters, officers and ratings (regulation V/l), including:
Tanker safety procedures.
Pollution prevention precautions.
Details of the tanker's cargo system.
Petroleum cargo types and handling requirements.
Details of tanker operations.
Fire safety measures and systems.

It is of particular importance that the ship's emergency teams be regularly drilled in their specialties so that they become more proficient and accustomed to working with each other. Drills involving fire teams, rescue squads, rescue craft crews and damage control teams should be stressed. The drills should be made as challenging and realistic as possible, with self-critiques following the exercise.
Training programs should include modules designed to improve compliance with the provisions of MARPOL 73/78 Annex V, for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships.
If there have been changes in the deck officers or deck crew at the loading port, the chief officer must provide the new officer(s) with detailed instructions regarding the cargo pumping system and the deck crew members with instruction regarding the vessel's cargo discharge and tank washing procedures.
The requirements of regulation VI/1, 'proficiency in survival craft' should also be incorporated into the training program and detailed demonstrations. Abandon ship training and drills should be made as realistic as possible. Crew members must be required to appear at their boat stations properly clothed, carrying equipment (blankets, etc), where indicated and with their survival equipment properly donned. Individuals should be alternately placed in charge of preparing and lowering the boat. At a minimum, the drill must be conducted in accordance with the requirements of SOLAS chapter III, regulation 18.
Training for engineering personnel should include operation of the fire pumps, fire fighting foam and carbon dioxide systems, emergency steering procedures, manual starting and connection of the emergency generator and the details of the bilge and ballast system.
A vessel's readiness to deal with any emergency is a function of the level of training the crew has received. If training is slighted or neglected, a small emergency can be mishandled into a major disaster.

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